CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. An Approach to the Origins of the English Language Socio-Historical Background to the Birth of English English as an Indo-European Language 1.2.1. Influences at Work 220.127.116.11 The Celtic Influence 18.104.22.168 The Influence of Latin 22.214.171.124 The Influence of the Danes 126.96.36.199. The Linguistic Influence of the Norman Conquest 1.2.2 Borrowings from Other Languages 1.3 Periods in the Evolution of the English Language CHAPTER 2. The Importance of Etymology in Onomastic Studies 2.1 Defining Etymology. Etymological dictionaries 2.2 Onomastics- The Study of Names] 2.3 How Personal Names Came into Being 2.4 Systems of Naming Different from the European Ones 2.5 Patterns of Naming in the Old Indo-European Languages 2.5.1 Family Names CHAPTER 3.. The English Naming System . Sources 3.1 Names in Old English and Middle English 3.1.1 Frequency of Names 3.2 Sources of English Personal Names 3.2.1 Names Adopted form Hebrew 3.2.2 Names Adopted form Germanic Languages 3.2.3 Names Adopted from Greek 3.2.4 Names Adopted from Latin 3.2.5 Names Preserved from Old English and Middle English 3.2.6 Names Adopted from Gaelic 3.2.7 Names Adopted from Welsh 3.2.8 Names Adopted from Celtic 3.2.9 Names Adopted from French 3.2.10 Names of Different Origins CHAPTER 4. Word Formation Processes within the English Naming System Minor Word Formation Processes Contraction Major Word Formation Processes Affixation Composition Other Formal Means of Creating Names – Changes in Spelling APPENDIX REFERENCES pagini 79
REFERENCES Books and studies Baugh , Albert C. , A History of the English Language , Second edition , ( London : Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd , 1959 ) . Baugh , Albert C. and Thomas Cable , A History of the English Language , Third edition , ( London : Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd , 1989 ) . Berndt , Rolf , A History of the English Language , (Leipzig , VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie , 1982 ) . Bloomfield , Morton W. and Leonard Newmark , A Linguistic Introduction to the History of English , (New York , Alfred A. Knopf Inc. , 1965 ) . Brook , G. L. , A history of the English Language , ( London : Cox & Wyman Ltd , 1960 ) Crystal , David , The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language , (New York : Cambridge University Press , 1995 ) Crystal , David , Linguistics , Second edition , ( London : Penguin Books , 1985 ) Gabriliu , E. , Lectures in English Literature ( I ), From Anglo_Saxon to Elizabethan , ( Galati: Universitatea “Dunarea de Jos” , 2000 ) Graur , Al , Nume de persoane , ( Bucureşti , Editura Ştiințifică , 1965 ) Iarovici , Edith , A History of the English Language , ( Bucureşti , Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică , 1973 ) . Kolatch , Alfred J. , The Name Dictionary. English and Hebrew Names , ( New York , Jonathan David Publishers , 1979 ) Lass , Roger , The Shape of English . Structure and History , ( London: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd , 1987 ) Leviţchi , Leon, Literatura engleză de la inceputuri până la 1648 , Vol. I , Ediţia a 2-a revizuită , ( Bucureşti : Universitatea Bucuresti , Institutul de Limbi si Literaturi straine , 1977 ) . Leviţchi, Leon , Limba engleză contemporană .Lexicologie, ( Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică , 1970 ) . McDowall , David , An Illustrated History of Britain , ( London , Longman , 1989). Poruciuc , A. , A Concise History of the English Language , ( Bucuresti : TIMS, 1992 ). Poruciuc , A., Istorie scrisa in engleza veche , ( Iasi : Editura Moldova , 1995 ) . Poruciuc , A , Limbă si istorie Engleza Intre William Cuceritorul si William Canton , (Iasi: Polirom , 1999 ) . Pyles , Thomas and Algeo , John , The Origins and Development of the English Language , Third edition , (New York : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich International edition , 1982 ) Quirk , R , Greenbaum Sidney , A University Grammar of English , ( Longman , 1973 ) Quirk , R , Greenbaum , Sidney , A Student’s Grammar of the English Language , (Longman , 1993 ) Ştefănescu – Drăgăneşti , Virgil , Introduction to the comparative grammar of the Germanic languages , Ediţia a doua revizuită , ( Bucureşti : Universitatea Bucureşti , Institutul de Limbi Străine , 1977 ) . Wakelin , Martyn , The Archeology of English , ( London: B.T. Batsford Ltd , 1988 ) W.J Craig , M.A.,( ed.), Shakespeare, Complete Works, ( Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1978 ). Dictionaries and encyclopaedias B.B.C. English Dictionary , ( London : Harper Collins Publishes Ltd , 1993 ) A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language , Klein Ernest , Vol.I (Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company , 1966 ). An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language , New edition revised and enlarged by the Rev. Skeat , Walter W. , ( Oxford: Clarendon Pres , 1958) Origins : a short etymological dictionary , Partridge , Eric , ( New York : The Macmillan Company , 1959 ) . The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology , Onions , C.T. ( ed.) , ( Oxford : Clarendon Press , 1982 ) . An Universal Etymological English Dictionary , Fifth edition , Bailey, N., ( London : J & J Knapton , 1931 ) . Webster’s Dictionary of Proper Names , compiled by Payton , Geoffrey , Springfield : G&C Merriam Company ,1970 ) . Webster’s Encycloaedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English language , ( New Jersey : Gramercy Books , 1996 ). Webster’s Synonyms, Antonyms and Homonyms , Third edition ( New Jersey : Crescent Books , 1994 ) The Wordsworth Dictionary of First Names , Mcleod ,Iseabail and Terry Freedman , ( Hertfordshire : Wordsworth Editions Ltd, 1995 ). Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms d’Hommes et de Dieux , Cherpillod , André, ( Paris : Masson , 1988 ). Dictionnnaire des Prénoms , Tanet , Chantal et Tristan Hordé , ( Paris : Larousse , 2000 ) . Dicţionar englez – român , Leviţchi , Leon, ( Bucureşti , Editura 100 +1 Gramar , 2003 ) Dicţionar român – englez , Leviţchi , Leon , ( Bucureşti, Editura 100+1 Gramar, 2003 ). Dicţionar frazeologic român – englez , Leviţchi et al., ( Bucureşti: Teora , 1999 ). The International Encyclopaedia of Linguistics , Bright, William ,( ed.) ( Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1992 ) . The New Encyclopaedia Brittanica , Vols. 4 and 24 , Fifteenth edition ( Chicago : Encyclopaedia Brittanica Inc , 1997 ).
vocabulary or to their own restricted knowledge of it , or merely responding to a natural impulse to use a familiar word , the upper classes introduced a huge number of common French words. They transferred much of the vocabulary used in government and administration , ecclesiastical , legal, military terms, words related to social life and hierarchy , fashion , art , learning , medicine and food. According to the Oxford English Dictionary " the total number of French words adopted during the Middle English period was slightly over ten thousand " of which " about 75 per cent are still in current use" ( Baugh & Cable, 1984, p.178 ). Between 1500 and 1700 Latin was again an important source of borrowing but afterwards French took again the lead as a consequence of the close relations among the two countries. 1.2.2. Borrowings from other languages Middle English received a number of loans from Dutch , Flemish and Low German mostly due to the commercial relations England had with the
1300 and civil registers became compulsory in 1538. In Wales , Henry VIII ( 18th century) ordered the nobles to use family names but among the other classes they didn’t become common before the 18th century. English and German use as last names the genitive form ending in “s” of the first name : Peters “belonging to Peter”, Philips” “belonging to Philip”. The English inventory of last names was enriched with Gaelic names like Lloyd “grey”, Morgan. Often the mother’s last name has been given to the child as a first name . Winston, once a place name became a family name . Henry Winston had a girl , Sarah Winston who married a man whose last name was Churchill and they had in 1620 a boy named Winston Churchill. Anglo-Saxon countries currently use an official set of three names : between the first and the last name the mother’s name is placed . In some cases only the initial of the second name is written. Using the word “son” to form family names is a common procedure in Germanic lang